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Saturday, August 11, 2012

Sample Completion of Action Research

Region V
Division of Camarines Sur

Report of Research Project Completed

TITLE:  Improving Reading Comprehension Through the Use of Higher Order Thinking  
               Activities

RESEARCHER:      Mr. Noel R. Dauran
                                   Master Teacher – 1

SCHOOL/DISTRICT:   Baya Elementary School
                                          Ragay District

ABSTRACT:
            This action research project was conducted to improve reading comprehension of grade III pupils of Baya Elementary School, Ragay District, Division of Camarines Sur for the school year 2011-2012. The researcher intends to improve the reading comprehension by using the higher – order thinking skills such as predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring, questioning and summarizing. In his classroom the researcher modeled these strategies through the think – aloud process and graphic organizers. This is followed by the pupils using these strategies through the whole class, small group, and independent practice.
            The pre-Experimental One-shot case method of Research was utilized in which the treatment was the instruction of Reading Strategies. Documentary analysis was also employed since the results of school’s PHIL-IRI and Metacomprehension Strategy Index were used as the source of data.
            The researcher gathered information prior to implementing the strategy interventions. The Metacomprehension Strategy Index indicated a lack of pupil’s knowledge of strategies to use before, during, and after reading. The PHIL-IRI given to the grade III pupils identified 9 of the 16 pupils below target level.
            The information gathered by the researcher after the intervention had been modeled and practiced showed improvement with the grade III pupils. The post intervention scores for the Metacomprehension Strategy Index showed a significant increase in pupils’ knowledge of the reading comprehension strategies. The Phil – IRI post intervention scores indicates only 2 of the 49 pupils of the grade III pupils remained non reader. The table on Level of reading comprehension it shows that along frustration level, indicated a decrease of 32.65%, under Instructional indicated an increase of 32.65% and 6.13% for Independent Level.
Purpose:
1.      To improve the reading comprehension of grade III pupils
2.      To increase the performance level of the grade III pupils in the Phil – IRI
3.      Prepare the grade III pupils for the National Achievement Test (NAT).
4.      Improve pupil’s performance in English  and further enhance the teacher-facilitator teaching competencies.

  Design/Methodology:

A.    Methodology
             This study employ the pre- experimental one- shot case study. According to De Jesus (1985) the pre – experimental one shot case study is a design in which a single group is only studied once, subsequent to a treatment is the instruction of reading strategies. It is important to teach the strategies by naming the strategy and how it should be used, modeling through think aloud process, group practice, partner practice and independent use of the strategy.
                Parental consent was obtained for this research project during the last week of August. To show evidence of a problem in reading comprehension the teacher researcher orally surveyed his grade III pupils using the Metacomprehension Strategy Index ( MSI). (see Appendix B)During the first week of September, the researcher administered this oral survey to his pupils. The survey measured each student’s awareness of the strategies used in the reading process. The researcher reads one part of the survey per day for three consecutive days. This Tool was used to measure the pupil’s awareness of their strategic reading process before the strategies were introduced.
                The second tool used was the PHIL – IRI Test administered to the pupils in the third grade classroom in the first week of July, 2011. This tool is used to determine student growth in reading comprehension.
                The teacher observation checklist (Appendik C) was used by the researcher to gather data throughout the intervention. Beginning in October 2011, once a month, the researcher used checklist to observe which reading comprehension strategies were being used by the pupils in small groups.  This tool provides information of changes on how well his pupils understand and use reading comprehension strategies over time.



B. Sampling Design
             Purposive sampling was employed in selecting pupils – respondents of the study. The pupils who were selected were enrolled in the third grade class for the school year 2011 – 2012.
                However, in terms of the selection of pupil-respondent of the study, a total enumeration of the grade III pupils who underwent the PHIL-IRI and Metcomprehension Strategy Index in English subject were involved.

Findings:
                       The objective of this research project was to improve reading comprehension in the third grade pupils through teacher modeling and think aloud process using six strategies. The researcher used predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring, questioning, and summarizing strategies. Beginning in September 2011, the strategies were introduced and practiced over a sixteen week period ending with an assessment at the end of January 2012. The strategies were first modeled by the researcher through the think aloud process and the use of graphic organizer. Next the strategies were practiced by the whole class then small groups, and finally independently.
                                One tool the researcher used to collect data, analyze pupils’ use, and pupils’ understanding of the reading strategies was an observation checklist. Beginning in October 2011, once a month, the researcher used checklist to observe which reading comprehension strategies were being used by the pupils in small groups. The researcher found two problems with using checklists. The researcher observed that pupils had a problem using the strategies within the group setting without a guide sheet to follow. Therefore the researcher developed a group record keeping sheet for the various strategies pupils were to use before, during and after reading the story in their group. This record keeping sheet aided the researcher in monitoring pupils’ progress since observing groups at one time was a second problem.
                  Following the teaching of the reading strategies, the researcher administered Metacomprehension Strategy Index (MSI) to see if the strategies changed pupils approaches in reading. The MSI measures pupils’ knowledge of reading strategies used before, during, and after reading, The researcher noted the new activities led to an increase in pupils’ knowledge of the reading strategies in all parts of the MSI.

           
Figure 1

A comparison of Percentage of Pretest and Posttest Responses
For the Metacomprehension Strategy Index
For the Targeted third Grade Pupils



                    The Metacomprehension Strategy Index (MSI) Part I, showed a comparison of pre-test percentages from September 2011 and post – test percentage from January 2012. These percentages indicated an increase in correct pupil’s responses of 38% for predicting, 13% for previewing, 11% for purpose setting, 20% for self – questioning, and 23% for drawing from background knowledge.

Figure 2

A comparison of Percentage of Pretest and Posttest Responses
For the Metacomprehension Strategy Index
For the Targeted third Grade Pupils




           The Metacomprehension Strategy Index (MSI) Part II, which measures reading strategies during reading, showed a comparison of pre-test responses from September 2011 and post – test from January 2012, (figure 2). These scores indicated an increase in correct pupil responses of 35% for predicting, 49% for self – questioning, 20% from drawing from background knowledge, and 19% for summarizing.


Figure 3

A comparison of Percentage of Pretest and Posttest Responses
For the Metacomprehension Strategy Index
For the Targeted third Grade Pupils


                 The Metacomprehension Strategy Index (MSI) part III, which measures reading strategies used after reading, showed a comparison of pre – test responses from September 2011 and post – test responses from January 2012 (figure 3). These scores indicated an increase in correct pupil responses of 35% for predicting, 36% for purpose setting, 23% for drawing from background knowledge, and 23% for summarizing.



Figure 4
A comparison of Percentage of Pretest and Posttest
Responses for the Phil – Iri for the
Targeted third Grade Pupils



            The table above on Phil – Iri, which measure reading comprehension it shows that
Along frustration level, indicated a decrease of 32.65%, under Instructional level indicated an increase of 32.65% and 6.13% for the Independent level.




Research Limitation/Implications
                        The general focus of the present study was on the Improving Reading Comprehension Through the use of Higher – Order Thinking Activities of grade III pupils in Ragay District, Division of Camarines Sur. The study covered the reading performance of the grade III pupils in English subject in the Phil – IRI of the school year 2011 – 2012 utilizing the pre and posttest. The aspect in Improving Reading Comprehension that the present study were looked into are the different reading strategies: predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring, questioning, and summarizing are shown on this research to improve reading comprehension.
                        The Investigator limited this research on the strategies in reading which is generally applied in English subject. This study was further delimited on the reading performance of the pupils on the pre and posttest of the PHIL – IRI of school year 2010- 2011. The Improving Reading Comprehension through higher – order thinking Skills was delimited to the teacher’s perception along strategies for reading and selected reading activities. This did not, however, cover the socio demographic profile of the respondent. The other aspects in teaching practice such as formulation of test question and reading materials were not included in this study since the focus will only be in the implementation of higher – order thinking activities as applied in the classroom.
                        This research project has helped me develop a better understanding of the strategies my third grade pupils need to learn in order for them to comprehend when they read. I have found out that the teacher modeling and think-aloud process are the most valuable tools I can use to help my pupils understand the comprehension strategies I want them to use. In the past I have used both of these tools, but failed to see that they need to be used to model the same strategies throughout the school year. The time when I read to the children in my class and model these strategies has become more productive and a better learning experience for my pupils. At the same time it has given me a better insight into my pupils’ live through their personal connections. One of the struggles that I encountered with my third grade pupils was a way to know if they were using the comprehension strategies independently. Even during small group work the only way they were able to show the use of strategies was through some type of paper and pencil activity or checklist. Since many of these comprehension strategies are new to the children, I  think it was unrealistic for me to expect them to use the strategies without some type of written reminder. I feel the majority of my pupils are now able to use the predicting, making connections, and visualizing strategies in small groups and independently. Most of my pupils still need guided practice for the questioning, inferring, and summarizing strategies. At this stage of their cognitive development I think it is appropriate for most of the pupils need guided practice for the questioning, inferring, and summarizing strategies.  
                       
Originality/Value:

            I found this journey through research quite rewarding. When I first began my research I was quite overwhelmed with the number of reading comprehension strategies I needed to implement and unsure of how everything would come together. Now I feel more confident and knowledgeable about the various reading comprehension strategies, how to integrate them into my curriculum, and how it will improve the higher order thinking skills of my pupils.
            I have found out that by using teacher modeling and the teacher think aloud process; my pupils had a better understanding of the various reading strategies. As I taught the reading comprehension strategies my pupils were eager to use predicting, making connections and visualizing strategies whenever I did a read aloud or we started a new lesson.
            Now that I have seen an increased understanding of reading comprehension strategies and an improvement in reading comprehension of my pupils, I would like to continue using  this strategies in my curriculum. Our Literature review for this research project made me aware of other areas of reading instruction that I would like to incorporate best practices into my curriculum for a well rounded reading program.


                                                                                                       Submitted by:

                                                                                         NOEL R. DAURAN
                                                                                         Master Teacher – I


Noted:
               HELEN J. DE LIMA
                       ESHT-III


Recommending Approval:
  
                                             OPHELIA A. PLATON, Ph. D.            FE C. BACLIG
                                                                  PSDS                                (ES – I English)

                                     Approved:


                                                         NORMA B. SAMANTELA, Ph. D.
                                                      Asst. Schools Division Superintendent



26 comments:

  1. thank you so much for your generosity...i really learn a lot from your blog post...

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  2. Big thank you...I started reading your blog kanina 1am and I truly enjoy everything you posted... i learned soo much...that I did'nt feel asleep until 5:30 am...I'm Mrs. Airene O. Suan ...teacher III from Cagayan de oro city...thank you for your generosity in sharing this vital information..

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  3. hi.. thanks for the blog.. its a great help..

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  4. sir,,can u help me with my research subject???

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  13. Thank you so much sir...you have shared to me a very significant learning...especially in doing an action research.

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  14. Thank you sir for this work. It can surely help us in improving comprehension skills of our pupils.

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  15. Thank you sir for sharing us your work. God bless u.

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  16. I learned from your research ..thank you so much.

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    Replies
    1. Thanks so much for reading my blog...

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  20. Thank you so much sir for sharing. I'm quite happy and sad as well, happy that there is someone like you who is willing to share a very informative files like this and sad coz "PA" or those on UP's gives very little or no encouragement were given to teachers. I believe that if the guides you posted are made visible to all teachers less teachers will be retiring T1 or T2. Thanks and God Bless

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  21. Thanks so much for reading my blog...God bless...

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  22. thank you sir for your generosity of sharing your insights. God will surely bless you more.

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